What kinds of ‘particles’ are allowed by nature? The answer lies in the theory of quantum mechanics, which describes the microscopic world.
In a bid to stretch the boundaries of our understanding of the quantum world, UC Santa Barbara researchers have developed a device that could prove the existence of non-Abelian anyons, a quantum particle that has been mathematically predicted to exist in two-dimensional space, but so far not conclusively shown. The existence of these particles would pave the way toward major advances in topological quantum computing.
In a study that appears in the journal Nature, physicist Andrea Young, his graduate student Sasha Zibrov and their colleagues have taken a leap toward finding conclusive evidence for non-Abelian anyons. Using graphene, an atomically thin material derived from graphite (a form of carbon), they developed an extremely low-defect, highly tunable device in which non-Abelian anyons should be much more accessible. First, a little background: In our three-dimensional universe, elementary particles can be either fermions or bosons: think electrons (fermions) or the Higgs (a boson).
“The difference between these two types of ‘quantum statistics’ is fundamental to how matter behaves,” Young said. For example, fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state, allowing us to push electrons around in semiconductors and preventing neutron stars from collapsing. Bosons can occupy the same state, leading to spectacular phenomena such as Bose-Einstein condensation and superconductivity, he explained. Combine a few fermions, such as the protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up atoms and you can get either type, but never evade the dichotomy.
In a two-dimensional universe, however, the laws of physics allow for a third possibility. Known as “anyons,” this type of quantum particle is neither a boson nor a fermion, but rather something completely different — and some kinds of anyons, known as non-Abelian anyons, retain a memory of their past states, encoding quantum information across long distances and forming the theoretical building blocks for topological quantum computers.
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